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Figures in Original Article by Helen E. O’Connell (*) - Sanjeevan Kalavampara (*) - Bruno Frea (**) Peter Robertson (***) - Ervin Kocjancic (**)

Cadaveric study of ACT® balloons and their impact on female sexual anatomy.

(*) University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
(**) Avogadro University, Novara, Italy
(***) Five Corners, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia


(Fig. 1)

Coronal section of female erectile tissue
Fig 1. – Coronal section of female erectile tissue of 76 year old fixed cadaver.


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(Fig. 2 )

The distances between the tubing of the previously implanted ACT® balloon

Fig. 2. – The distances between the tubing of the previously implanted ACT® balloon and both the vestibular bulb and the crus of the clitoris was between 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm.



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(Fig. 3 )

The dorsal neurovascular structures are anterior and lateral to the position of the ACT® prosthesis

Fig. 3. – The dorsal neurovascular structures are anterior and lateral to the position of the ACT® prosthesis, at a distance of 1.5 cm or greater and unlikely to be injured with this technology.



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(Fig. 4 )

Implanted device in relation to the crus

Fig. 4. – Passage of implanted device in relation to the crus, the bulbs and the dorsal neurovascular bundle showing no disruption of the clitoral bulb.



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(Fig. 5 )

Demonstration of inappropriate trocar direction

Fig. 5. – Demonstration of inappropriate trocar direction. Directing the insertion instrument from a more lateral position towards the contralateral labia could produce unintended clitoral bulb disruption.



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